The Lute Society of America Lute Projects Susanne un jour
Susanne un jour
Musical settings of texts narrating the story of Susanna and the elders were among of the most popular tunes of the late Renaissance, above all in France. In particular the poem, Susanne un jour, by Guillaume Guéroult provided the text for at least 30 chansons by more than 20 different composers in addition to the most famous setting by Orlando di Lasso, and it provided the inspiration for songs in Dutch, German and English as well. The chanson by Lasso was subsequently converted into numerous instrumental versions across the breadth of Europe and over a span of several decades. These settings, as well as instrumental arrangements of vocal versions by other composers, demonstrate a wide variety of compositional techniques and styles. As a memorial to the late Suzanne Bloch, one of the founders and a past president of the Lute Society of America, we are endeavoring to collect here copies of or links to all of the 16th and 17th century songs and instrumental reductions based on that theme. Visitors to this page are invited to supply missing historical versions or to compose new settings and provide them through this medium to the lute-playing community and fellow lovers of Early Music.
Table of Contents
The events are recorded in the Greek additions to the Old Testament Book of Daniel; these additions are accepted as canonical by Roman Catholics and Orthodox Christians, but not by Protestants. In the Greek Septuagint, Latin Vulgate and Roman Catholic Bibles this material constitutes chapter 13 of Daniel. Most Protestants separate the material out as the Book of Susanna in the Apocrypha. In rabbinic Judaism, the story of Susanna was not received into the canon of Holy Scripture. Here is a synopsis:
The Jewish people had been exiled to Babylon, but their captors allowed them to retain their customs and laws. Two elders who had been appointed judges met to adjudicate disputes in a spacious and pleasant home, where Susanna lived with her husband and children. One day, the two licentious elders spied on Susanna bathing in her garden. Inflamed with lust, they tried to coerce her to lie with them, but the virtuous beauty said she would rather die than offend the Lord by committing adultery.
Infuriated, the elders claimed that they had seen Susanna lying with a young man in her garden. She was being led to the execution ground when the Holy Spirit inspired the young prophet Daniel to suggest that the elders be questioned separately. What sort of tree were Susanna and her lover lying under? When one named a mastic tree and the other an oak, Susanna was vindicated and the elders were dragged to execution.
The poem first appeared in print in 1548 as the text of a chanson in the collection, Premier livre de chansons spirituelles, par Guillaume Gueroult, mises en musique à 4 parties par Didier Lupi second & aultres (Lyon, Beringen
brothers, GIF, 528 KB). That original compilation was reprinted, with revisions, by du Chemin in Paris in 1559 and 1568. Guéroult also printed the poem in a different collection, Premier livre des Pseaumes, Cantiques et Chansons spirituelles: traduictz & composees, bonne partie par G. Gueroult, which appeared in Geneva in 1554
(GIF, 333 KB). This English translation is adapted from the one appearing in Nicholas Yonges Musica Transalpina, 1588.
|Susanne un jour d'amour solicitée
Par deux viellardz, convoitans sa beauté,
Fust en son coeur triste et desconfortée,
Voyant leffort fait à sa chasteté.
Elle leur dict, Si par desloyauté
De ce corps mien vous avez jouissance,
Cest fait de moy. Si ie fay resistance,
Vous me ferez mourir en deshonneur.
Mais jaime mieux périr en innocence,
Que doffenser par peché le Seigneur.
|Susanna faire, sometimes of love requested
By two old men whome her sweet looks allur'd
Was in her heart full sad & sore molested
Seeing the force her chastitie endurd.
To them she said, if I by craft procurd
Doe yield to you my body to abuse it,
I kill my soule, & if I do refuse it,
You will mee judge to death reproachfully.
But better tis in innocence to choose it,
Than by my fault toffend my God on high.
Chansons and other vocal settings
The first musical setting of Guéroults poem, published in the 1548 Premier livre... (see above), seems to have been composed by Didier Lupi second.
Orlando di Lasso and a host of other composers followed, usually employing the tenor of the Lupi setting as a basis in some way. Lassos chanson is for five voices in the Dorian mode transposed to G and was published three separate times in 1560:
- Tielman Susato, Quatorsiesme livre a quatre parties (supplement).
- Pierre Phalése, Tiers livre des chansons a quatre, cincq et six parties compsez par Orlando di Laissus, Louvain.
- Adrian Le Roy, Livre des meslanges.
He used the tenor of Lupis chanson as a cantus firmus, but lengthened and adapted it so that Lasso's version ends up a third longer. The music of the first two lines of the poem (A: mm. 1 - 14) is repeated for the third and fourth lines (mm. 14 - 28), ending in a cadence on the tonic with a raised third. This sets off the new music (B) which portrays Susannes response to the elders in the last six lines. Another cadence on G comes at the break in the middle of the seventh line, Cest fait de moy. Si je fay résistance/[this is done to me. If I resist]. At that point Lassus halts the music with a rest in all voices, and then underscores the words If I resist with homophony that moves to a cadence on the relative major.
A recording of the Lassus chanson performed by the Hilliard Ensemble under Paul Hillier is included in a 1984 EMI collection entitled Lassus, Motets and Chansons, available as a re-release on Virgin Veritas, 7243 5 61166 2 7 (1994).
A modern edition of the chanson by Orlando di Lasso, in PDF format:
Vocal settings by Claude le Jeune and Mithou (Thomas Champion) were also arranged into versions for lute.
A three-part chanson setting by Jean de Castro was published in 1569 in Louvain by Pierre Phalèse the elder in the Receuil des Fleurs prodvictes de la divine mvsiqve a trois parties. It was reprinted in 1582 in Antwerp by Pierre Phalèse the younger and Jean Bellère in the collection, Chansons, Madrigaux et Motetz a trois parties par M. Iean de Castro. The musical settings in the two prints are essentially the same and almost error-free, but there are quite a few inconsistencies in the text orthography and punctuation, both between the prints and among the parts of each individual print.
A modern edition of the Jean de Castro chanson in PDF format:
Original publications of the French chansons are catalogued in the Programme Ricercar of the Centre dÉtudes Supérieurs de la Renaissance. Some of the listings include printed and/or manuscript concordances.
Transcriptions for Lute
A brief comparative study of some of the better-known lute arrangements of the Lasso chanson may be found in an article, Intabulations of Orlande de Lassus Chanson Susanne un jour by Caroline Usher, Christine Ballman and Ronn McFarlane, in the Lute Society of America Quarterly XXXVII No. 1, pp. 18 29.
- Lute setting of the Lasso chanson by Emanuel Adriaensen, from his Novum Pratum Musicum of 1592, ff. 16v 18r. (PDF, 67 KB)
- Lute setting attributed to Laurencini by Jean Baptiste Besard in his Thesaurus Harmonicus of 1603. (PDF, 69 KB) This was recorded by Jacob Lindberg on BIS LP-226, Italian Music for Lute and Chitarrone (1983), re-released on BIS CD-211, Virtuoso Lute Music from Italy and England (January 1987). The Susanna del Cavagliere in the MS Libro de sonate diversi copied out by Pietro Paolo Raimondo in 1601 is a variant version of this.
- Lute setting in a different tonality published by Jean Baptiste Besard in his Thesaurus Harmonicus of 1603. (PDF, 66 KB)
- Lute setting by Anthoine Francisque, from his book, Le Tresor dOrphée, printed in 1600. (PDF, 105 KB)
- Lute setting by Giovanni Battista della Gostena, published by Simone Molinaro in his Intavolatvra di Livto of 1599. This piece has been recorded by Paul O’Dette on Harmonia Mundi USA, HMU 907295 (2001), Simone Molinaro: Fantasie, Canzoni e Balli.
- Lute setting by Bernhard Jobin, from his Erste Buch of 1572, printed in Strasbourg.
- Lute setting from Hortus musicalis novus, Strasbourg, 1615, of Elias Mertel. As is usual with Mertel, where he asks us to judge the music on its own merits rather than based on labeling, he titles the piece cryptically as “Phantasia 66” (PDF, 12.6 KB). This edition was prepared by Göran Crona.
- Lute setting from Mus.Ms.2987, attributed to “MN,” which may represent Melchior Newsidler.
- The lute setting published by Pierre Phalèse in his Luculentum Theatrum Musicum (1568) is available in the form of a facsimile in the Lute Society of America Quarterly XXXVII No. 1, p. 30.
- Lute setting of the Lasso chanson by Giovanni Antonio Terzi in the form of a duet for lutes a fourth apart, published in his Intavolatura di liuto..., libro primo, 1593.
- An anonymous intabulation of the Lassus chanson is found in Ms. Mus. 40032, which seems to have been copied ca. 1590 in Naples and is currently in Kraków, Biblioteka Jagielonska. This transcription was prepared by Göran Crona. (PDF, 66 KB)
- Another anonymous intabulation of the Lassus chanson is found in Cambridge Ms. Dd.2.11, ff. 23v-24. (PDF, 64.5 KB) This is essentially the same as the version from the Wickhambrook Lute MS (ca. 1590)
that was recorded by Stephen Stubbs with the Hilliard Ensemble in a 1984 EMI collection entitled, Lassus, Motets and Chansons, available as a re-release on Virgin Veritas, 7243 5 61166 2 7 (1994). A recording of the Wickhambrook version has been posted on Youtube by David van Ooijen in May 2012.
- Lute setting by Sixtus Kärgel from his Novæ Elegantissimæ Gallicæ, Item et Italicæ Cantilenæ, Mutetæ & Passomezo, Strasbourg, 1574.
- Lute intabulation by Emanuel Adriaensen of one of the chanson settings by Claude le Jeune of Guéroults poem, published in the Novum Pratum Musicum of 1592, ff. 23v 25r. (PDF, 55 KB) Adriaensen also provides copies of le Jeune's tenor and bass vocal parts on the pages facing the tablature in his print, so these can be sung or played along with the lute intabulation ad libitum. Note that, with the exception of brief rests interpolated between the phrases, the tenor part of the le Jeune setting is identical to that of Lupi.
- Lute setting by Guillaume Morlaye of the chanson by Mithou (Thomas Champion), from the Premier Livre de Tabvlatvre de Levt, Paris, 1552. (PDF, 49 KB)
- An anonymous Suzana Galliard from Cambridge MS Dd.2.11, f. 52, perhaps by John Dowland, is presented in modern edtion in the Lute Society of America Quarterly XXXVII No. 1, p. 35. See also The Right Honourable The Lord Viscount Lisle, His Galliard by John Dowland, #38 in The Collected Lute Music of John Dowland, edited by D. Poulton and B. Lam (Faber, 1974 & 1978).
- Giulio Severino wrote a Fantasia sopra Susane un jour which was published by Simone Molinaro in his Intavolatvra di Livto of 1599. This piece has been recorded by Paul O'Dette on Harmonia Mundi USA, HMU 907295 (2001), Simone Molinaro: Fantasie, Canzoni e Balli.
Other Instrumental Versions
Two cittern arrangements of the Lassus chanson have survived. Over a dozen versions of it for keyboard are known, from prints and manuscript sources originating in Italy, Germany, England and the Iberian peninsula, with some of the prints also suggesting suitability for harp. It appears six times in the Italian diminution manuals; Giovanni Bassano and Orazio Bassani provide one version each, while Girolamo dalla Casa and Francesco Rognoni each gloss it twice.
- The Bassano divisions were recorded by the Renaissance flute ensemble Il Desiderio on the Aeolus CD AE-10066 (2003). The original Lassus chanson and the 5-voice setting by Claude Le Jeune are also included in mixed vocal/instrumental interpretations.
- Rognonis Passaggi sopra Susanna un jour per il violone over trombone alla bastarda are recorded by Tragicomedia on a CD entitled Capritio, Harmonia Mundi, 907294 (2001).
- The Cipriano de Rore chanson setting of Susanne un jour was recorded with a violin band by The Kings Noyse. The recording also includes the Lassus chanson, again rendered by the violin band, but with extensive divisions on the superius part improvised by David Douglass. Le Jardin de Mélodies, Harmonia Mundi USA, HMU 907194 (1997).
- The original chanson, Susanne un jour by Didier Lupi second.
- The chanson, Susanne un jour by Orlando di Lasso.
- The five-voice Missa Susanne un jour by Orlando di Lasso, provided here in the form of MIDI files, has been recorded by the Oxford Camerata under the direction of Jeremy Summerly, Naxos 8.550842 (1993). It also appears on a disc called Musica in Colonia, Glissando 779 912-2 (October 2000),
performed by Musica Fiata under the direction of Roland Wilson.
- Boccassini, Daniela, La parola riscritta Guillaume Gueroult, poeta e traduttore nella Francia della Riforma, La Nuova Italia Editrice, Firenze (1985). Contains xviii + 418 pp. in Italian, with no subject index, devoted to Gueroult's translations and original poetry.
- Levy, Kenneth Jay, Susanne un jour The History of a 16th Century Chanson, Annales Musicologiques, vol. 1, pp. 375-408 (1953). A comparative study of the 38 vocal versions known to him at the time of writing. Well documented, but sometimes confusing language.
- Thomas, Bernard, Girolamo dalla Casa & Giovanni Bassano Divisions on Susanne ung jour for treble instrument and continuo, London Pro Musica Edition LPM REP7, London (1982). This contains a short, but useful and well documented preface.
Acknowledgements: We are particularly grateful to Christine Ballman for the use of material from her dissertation, Les Oeuvres de Lassus mises en tablature pour le luth. Catalogue, transcriptions, analyse, 2002, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. We appreciate also the contributions of Doug Towne, Mathias Roesel and Göran Crona to this page.
Last updated 11 November AD 2013 DFH.