Music by 'Gauthier' in vieil ton

There were a number of French lutenists named Gauthier, also spelt Gautier, Gaultier, Gothier, Goutie, Gautie, Gwaltier, Cautier and Haultier [cf. New Grove].

Jacques Gautier or 'Gautier d'Angleterre' lived in England from 1617 until after 1660 and was probably unrelated to any of the Gauthiers below. Ennemond Gauthier [1575-1651] was known as 'Gaultier de Lyon' as he was born near Lyon, 'Gautier de Vienne' or as 'le vieux Gautier' to distinguish him from his cousin Denis Gauthier [1603-1672] who was called 'Gaultier le jeune' or 'Gaultier de Paris'. Ennemond visited England in 1630 and played before Charles I. The other lutenist with that name of the period was Pierre Gauthier also known as 'Gautier d'Orleans' and 'Gaultier de Rome' who published a book of lute solos in Rome 1638, not to be confused with the unrelated Pierre Gautier [1642?-1696] or 'Gautier de Marseille' who was an organist and opera director.

Over 200 of their lute solos survive in many manuscript and a few printed sources mainly for baroque lute. Interestingly, nearly fifty solos survive in renaissance [vieil ton] tuning, listed below - please inform me if you have any additions or corrections. Unfortunately, they are all ascribed simply to Gaultier [or other spelling] without reference to which one [except #21, which is ascribed 'Old Cautier' in Sibley, indicating Ennemond, and #44 uses the same title as another piece by Denis Gauthier].

The tuning and the dating of the earlier of the sources would suggest that most of these are by Jacques or Ennemond, but the similarity in the style of the pieces doesn't help to decide between these two. It has been assumed that those in English sources are by Jacques, and by implication that the pieces in continental sources are by Ennemond. Indeed, the Herbert pieces largely don't overlap with those from the other major sources, Aegidius, Dolmetsch and Swan and the minor continental sources. But the exceptions to this rule render it very unreliable: #6 is found in Swan and Aegidius as well as Herbert; #15 and #18 are in both Swan and Herbert. Furthermore, the lack of divisions to most of the pieces in Herbert, unlike Aegidius, Dolmetsch and Swan, make stylistic comparisons difficult.

The selection of ten pieces in this supplement [marked * below] includes 8 of the 39 courantes, in several keys, one of the six voltes and 'Cloches' or 'Bells of Paris' I have chosen examples from Aegidius and Herbert to allow a comparison of pieces that might previously have been assumed to be by Ennemond and Jacques, respectively. All but one do not duplicate modern editions. It is assumed that the ascriptions to Ballard [nos.13, 18 & 27] are original compositions by Gauthier used by Ballard, and that the attribution of no.34 to DB [DuBut?] in Rostock is an error. It seems likely that there are many more lute solos by the Gauthiers not ascribed in the surviving sources.

Complete inventory with concordances and cognates of lute solos in vieil ton tuning by Gauthier ordered by key [upper case for major, lower case for minor]. Versions with divisions are also marked. I have not checked for cognates in other tunings. Tuning of diapasons and no. of bars in sections are given for selection in tablature:

  1. Courante Gothier [G], Aegidius [Prague IV.G.18, c.1623] f.22v; Courante, Dolmetsch II.B.1 [c.1620] f.238v.
  2. * Courante Gothier [G], Aegidius ff.67v-68. [10 course, F,Eflat,D,C; A14, A'14, B14, B'14]
  3. Corente [G], Swan [St. Petersburg Ms.O No.124, c.1640] ff.67v-68; Corr: franc., Doni p.99; cf. Courante de Gauthier, Basel F.IX.53 ff.18v-19; Courente, Turin IV.23/2 ff.10v-11.
  4. Courante par gautie [a flat], Moy 1631 f.17/sig.N4.
  5. Courante Gothier [a], Aegidius f.52.
    1. Courante Gauthier son Adieu / La Redouble [Bflat] (divisions), Herbert [Cambridge Fitzwilliam Museum Mus.Ms.689, c.1624-40] ff.49v-50; Mathews melancholy good night, Mathew 1652 pp.35-8; Courante, Schele p.89 ii; A Dieu de Gothier, Swan ff.74v-75; Courante, Aegidius f.162v; Courante Transp G.M. [c], Aegidius ff.118v-119.
    2. Courante. Gauthier [B flat], Herbert f.50 i ; Secunda Pars, Swan f.75v.
  6. Courante Gothier [B flat] (divisions), Aegidius ff.163v-164; cf. Courante, Basel F.IX.53 ff.5-6.
  7. Courante Gauthier [B flat] (divisions), Herbert f.46v i; (Moun)sieur de (Ga)utier (Co)urante, Danzig 4022 f.12; Corant, ML f.22 ii; (untitled), Swan ff.73v-74; cf. almond goutie flat (french flat tuning), Wemyss ff.35v-36.
  8. * Courante Gauthier [B flat], Herbert f.46v ii; Coraendt, Nuernberg 33.748 I [c.1610] f.45. [10c; F,Eflat,D,Bflat; A16, B16] Paul O'Dette plays this on his Lord Herbert CD, Harmonia Mundi HMU 907068, 1992].
  9. Courante Gauthier sur J'astois brise mes fers [B flat], Herbert ff.50 ii.
  10. Courante par gautie [B flat], Moy 1631 f.11v/sig.M2v.
  11. Courante par gautie [B flat/G], Moy 1631 f.20v/sig.O3v.
  12. * Courante Gothier [c] (divisions), Aegidius ff.100v-101; Courante Gothier (divisions), Dolmetsch ff.215v-216; Corandt Eiusdem (Ballardt), Nuernberg I f.47 (CNRS Ballard II p.80). [10c, F,Eflat,D,C; A12, A'12, B12, B'12]
  13. Courante Gothier [c], Aegidius f.109.
  14. (untitled) [c] (divisions), Swan ff.28v-29; Courante Gauthier [f] (divisions), Herbert f.37 i; (untitled) (divisions), Swan ff.58v-59; cf. Corrente francese con le sue parte doppie [guitar], Foscarini (1632/R1640) p.42.
  15. Courante Gauthier [c], Herbert f.61v i.
  16. Courante Gauthier [c], Herbert f.62 i.
  17. Courante Gauthier [c], Herbert f.62 ii; Cor: de Ballardt, Nuernberg I f.46v (CNRS Ballard II p.79); Courante (divisions), Schele pp.82-83; (untitled) (divisions), Swan ff.26v-27; Courante par gautie Moy 1631 f.12.
  18. Courante Gauthier [c] (divisions), Herbert ff.71v-72.
  19. Courante Gauthier [c] (divisions), Herbert f.72 iii; Volt 3 (divisions) R Dowland 1610 sig.S1.
  20. (untitled) [c] (divisions), Swan ff.24v-25; cf. Courante, ton commun, Aix-en-Provence 17 ff.101v-102; (untitled), Cortot 7.Q.5 p.167; Courante, Paris Vmf.48 ff.124v-125; (untitled), Paris Vmf.51 ff.26v-27; Co: old Cautier [Ennemond], Tabley p.43; Courante (mandora), Ulm Smr.133b ff.91v-92; Courante (set by) Laroussiere [mandora], Ulm Smr.239 ff.36v-37.
  21. (untitled) [c] (divisions), Swan ff.32-31v; Courrente Gautier (divisions), Montbuysson f. 89v; Curante, Stobaeus f. 51v.
  22. Courante par gautie [c], Moy 1631 f.16/sig.N3; (Bon)tade (de) Bal(lard), Danzig 4022 f.11v; La Bontade de Ballard, Dolmetsch ff.189v-190; Courante, Dolmetsch ff.60v-61; Cour, Kremunster L81 f.151; Courante, ML

    f.25v; Couranta 69, Werl f.74; Courante de la Reyne. Cinquiesme, Ballard I 1611 pp.44-5; Courante 3, Fuhrmann 1615 p.163 i; cf. (untitled), Koenigsberg f.75.

  23. (Gau?)ltier (?)lenzon (corante?) [c], Danzig 4022 f.15v.
  24. * Courante Gauthier [C], Herbert f.65 ii. [9c, F,E,C; A15, B15]
  25. Courante Gauthier [C], Herbert f.65v i.
  26. Courante gothier [E flat], Aegidius f.27; Courante Gothier, Dolmetsch f.273; Cor:, Nuernberg I f.44v; Courante de la Reyne. Huitiesme, Ballard I 1611 pp.50-1; cf. Courante R.M.F. (tuned as Melii III 1616), Aegidius f.197.
  27. * Courante Gauthier [E flat], Herbert f.40v i. [8?c, F,Eflat; A22, B22]
  28. * Courante du mesme [Gauthier] [E flat], Herbert f.40v ii. [8?c, (F),Eflat; A20, B18]
  29. Courante Gothier [f], Aegidius f.7.
  30. * Courante Gothier [f] (divisions), Aegidius ff.19v-20. [10c, F,(Eflat),(D),C; A12, A'12, B12, B'12]
  31. Courante Gothier [f] (divisions), Aegidius ff.20v-21; Courante, Dresden 297 p.82; Current Con:, Dlugoraj p.264; Ich habe mein Liebchen zum Tantze gefuret Curant, Stobaeus ff.49v-50; Cor:, Swan f.35; Courante Francoyse, Valerius 1626 pp.270-1; cf. Courante, Basel F.IX.53 ff.13v-14; (untitled), Bern 123 p.123; Courente, Turin IV.23/2 ff.12v-13; cf. versions for mandora, recorder.
  32. Courante Gothier [f], Aegidius f.21; (untitled), Swan f.55; Courante, Moy 1631 f.32v/sigR3v.
  33. * Courente Gothier [F] (divisions), Aegidius ff.3v-4; Courante de Gaulthier (divisions), Dolmetsch ff.183v-184v; (untitled) (divisions), Swan ff.47v-48; cf. Courante D.B. [CNRS DuBut], Rostock XVII-54 pp.252-3. [10c, F,E,(D),C; A16, A'16, B16, B'16]
  34. Courante Gothier [F], Aegidius f.7v; Courante Gothier, Dolmetsch f.278; Corant, Aegidius ff.64v-65; cf. Corant, Aegidius ff.85v-86.
  35. Volte Gothier [g], Aegidius ff.68v-69; Volte (divisions), Dolmetsch ff.270v-271; Corante, Swan f.68v.
  36. Volte Gauthier [c], Herbert f.70v i.
  37. Volte Gauthier [E flat], Herbert ff.49v i; Volt 4, Varietie 1610 sig.S1v.
  38. * Volte Gauthier [E flat], Herbert f.42v ii. [8?c, F,Eflat, but uses 'a' for F and '//a' for Eflat; A12, A'12, B12, B'12]
  39. Volte gothier [f], Aegidius f.10v; Volte Gothier / sine quinta, Dolmetsch f.272v.
  40. Pauan Gauthier [c], Herbert f.71v i.
    1. Balletto di Gothier [B flat], Aegidius f.91v; (untitled), Sibley p.41; (untitled), Swan ff.71v-72; Ballet du grand Turq (mandora), Ulm 133b ff.55v-56.
    2. Seconda parta [B flat], Aegidius ff.92-92v; Duple (mandora), Ulm 133b ff.56v-57.
    3. La Terza parta [B flat], Aegidius ff.92v-93; Air (mandora), Ulm 133b ff.61v-62.
    4. La quarta parta [B flat], Aegidius ff.93-93v.
  41. * Cloches Mr. Gauthier (ab fin) [E flat], Herbert f.42 ii. [8?c, F,Eflat; 21 bars, final bar has been added editorially]
  42. Les Larmes de Gautier [e flat] (divisions), Herbert f.87 ii. [The allemande Andromede by Denis Gauthier from La Rhetorique des Dieux, also called Le Tombeau de Blanrocher Allemande de Gattier P. in Oxford Bodleian Ms. Mus. Sch. G 617 pp.96-7, is titled Lais larme de Gauttier in Krakow 40626 ff.55v-56, but I don't know if it is the same piece as the one in Herbert].
  43. [Sara]band Gauthier, Jacobides lute manuscript [Prague XIII.B.237.III] f2
  44. 'Toccada Nolibiliss: Sonatoris Gautier' Mylius [Thesaurus Gratiarum] 1622 p.23 i
  45. 'Toccada Eiusdem[Gautier]' Mylius 1622 p.23 ii

    Doubtful atribution:

  46. Cor: [F], Swan f.48v; Autre du mesme ton (divisions), Dolmetsch f.185; cf. Courante (mandora), Ulm Smr.133b ff.40v-41, no.60.
  47. Autre du mesme ton [F], Dolmetsch ff.185v-186; Corrente, Nuernberg I f.53v; Corante, Per Brahes f.25. [45 & 46 are preceded by Courante de Gaultier but followed by Autre du mesme ton de Mesangeau, also in F, in Dolmetsch, suggesting du mesme refers to the key not the composer.]
  48. Courante par de moy / Courante par de gautie [E flat/c] (divisions), Moy 1631 ff.12v-13/sigs.M3v-M4 [Moy's printer headed f.12v Courante par de moy and f.13 Courante par gautie, clearly a continuation of the same piece. On the grounds of style, it is likely to be by Moy.]
  49. Courante D.G. [A] [Denis Gauthier or Galilei?], Dolmetsch f.205v.
  50. Volte D.G. [B flat] [Denis Gauthier or Galilei?], Aegidius f.166.

(c) John H Robinson, Newcastle University, April 1997