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Dateable elements in titles of solo lute music

Alençon, Duke d': See MOUNSIEUR'S ALMAIN

Although I had a check: Poem by Surrey from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Ambrose: Possibly Ambrose Lupo de Milan, violin player to the court 1540-91.

Anthony: Ship of 120 tons owned by Cumberland and others. Captained by Robert Careless, a privateer. Went in an unsuccessful privateeringconvoy in 1595 under Captain Langton.[1]

Antiq Maske: possibly from The Lords' Maske, Campion, 14 Feb 1613.

As oft as I behold and see: Poem by Surrey from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Augurs, Maske of: Ben Jonson, 6 Jan and 6 May 1622.

Augustine: Probably Augustine Bassano, (b Venice, d Oct 1604) who came to England in 1539 and was a lutenist to Queen Elizabeth.

Banning, Lady: Anne, the daughter of Sir Henry Glenham. She married Sir Paul Banning (or Bayning) 1588-1629, of Little Bentley, Essex, in or before 1613, and died in 1639. She would have become Lady Banning in 1614 (when Sir Paul was knighted) until 1630, when she remarried.

Bear's Dance: possiblyfrom the Maske of Augurs, Ben Jonson, 6 Jan and 6 May 1622.

Beaton, Mary: A Lady in Waiting to Queen Mary, who had a famous argument with James Beaton over Darnley in 1598. She appears very frequently in Scottish ballads for almost a century.

Bedford, Countess of: (d 1627) Famous patroness of poets and musicians, married the third earl of Bedford in 1594.

Bona Esperanza: One of Sir Hugh Willoughby's three ships which set sail in 1553 on an ill-fated voyage to find the North-east Passage.

Bonny Sweet Robin: Ballad tune first mentioned in 1594.

Brett: May be Arthur Brett, a cousin of Lady Buckingham, Groom of the Bed-chamberand would-be favourite of James I, who was knighted in 1623 and came to public notice especially in 1624. Other possibilities include Robert Brettof Devonshire, knighted in 1604, d1620.

Buckingham, Duke of: George Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham (1598-1628). Court favourite, especially of James I. Murdered in Portsmouth.

Burgh, Lord: Thomas, Lord Burgh (d1597).

Burrow: See BURGH

By fortune as I lay in bed: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Candish, Captain: Probably Thomas Cavendish (1560-92) who sailed his own ship from 1585 and circumnavigated the globe 1586-7.

Can She Excuse:[2]

Carey, Sir George: Robert Johnson was articled to him in 1596, and he succeededto the Hunsdon barony in 1596.

Case, Dr John: (d1600) Author of The Praise of Musicke (Oxford, 1586) and Apologia Musices (1588), qualified as a Doctor of Medicine in 1589.

Chamberlain, Lord: (The one in Dowland's piece) George Carey, second Baron Hunsdon (1547-1603), son of Henry Carey, the first baron. He succeeded to the title in 1596 and was appointed Lord Chamberlain in 1597.


Chi Passa: The origin of the ground (A 8 bars, B 12 bars) is to be found in a songby Filippo Azzainolo, Chi passa per questa strada, printed 1557 (see Simpson1966, 101).

Chow Bente: Ballad tune, sung in William Cavendish's play The Varietie (1639).

Christian(us) IV: Kingof Denmark, reigned 1588-1648, crowned 1596, employed Dowland 1598-1606.

Clifton, Mrs/Lady: Katherine Darcy, daughter of Sir Henry Darcy. She married Gervase Clifton in 1591. Clifton was knighted sometime before 1597 and created a peer in 1608.

Cromwell, Oliver: 1599-1658.

Dallis, Thomas: He wasa teacher (probably of music) at Cambridge by 1583, and he examined Edward Johnson for his MusB in 1594. In 1583 he was referred to as 'Mr Dallis' in Dallis, but by 1594 was a Doctor of Music. His name frequently appears with that of John Bull.

Danyel, John: Awarded Bachelor of Music, Oxford 1604.

Darcy, Katherine: Daughter of Sir Henry Darcy. She married Gervase Clifton in1591. Clifton was knighted sometime before 1597 and createda peer in 1608.

De La Tromba: Also known as Lady Frances Sidneys Good Morrow. See SIDNEY, LADY FRANCES

Delight: One of Sir Humphrey Gilbert's five main ships for his voyage of 1583 to Newfoundland. 120 tons. Gilbert sailed in this ship; it was Captained by William Winter, andthe Master was Richard Clarke. On the voyage, the Delight struck a shoal and about 100 people were drowned.

Denmark, King of: See: CHRISTIAN IV

Derby, Earl of: Ferdinando Stanley, fifth Earl (1559-1594). He was known asLord Strange until he succeeded as fifth earl in 1593, though Lumsden says it was in 1572.

Devereux, Penelope: (b1562/3-1607), elder sister of Robert, Earl of Essex, marriedLord Rich (hence: Lady Rich) in 1581, and later Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy in 1605, who was by that time Earl of Devonshire.

Devereux, Robert: (1567-1601) Created second Earl of Essex in 1576, and was also Lord Hereford. He was a court favourite around 1586, but was executed in 1601. See also RICH, LADY; DURETTE

Devereux, Walter: Created Viscount Hereford in 1550 and created Earl of Essex in 1572.

Devils Dance: Possibly an antimasque dance in the SQUIRE'S MASQUE

Dolefull bell that still doth ring, the: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Dowland, John: AwardedBachelor of Music, Christ Church, Oxford in 1588 and styled 'Doctor' for the first time in print in 1621, in Thomas Ravenscroft Whole Booke of Psalmes (London, 1621), Psalm 100.

Dowland's Bells: Also known as Lady Rich's Galliard. See RICH, LADY

Drewrie: May be William Drury, d 1589, who took a law degree in 1553.

Durette:[3] The Earl of Essex, Walter Devereux, also Viscount Herefordfrom 1550; who became Earl of Essex in 1572.

Earl of Essex's Dump: See O HEAVENLY GOD

Eglantine: The White rose, emblem of Elizabeth I (1558-1603).

Essex, Earl of: The title was created in 1572. See DEVEREUX, ROBERT and DURETTE

Fairy's Dance: Possibly an antimaske dance from Ben Jonson's Oberon, January 1611.

Flat pavan: Listed in Munday 1588.

Fleetwood, Brigid: daughter of Thomas Fleetwood of Chalfont St Giles. She married Sir William Smith in 1589, the nephew and heir of Sir Thomas Smith of Essex.

Fortune: Ballad tune dating from 1589 or earlier.

Fortune my Foe: See ORLANDO[4]

Gillyflower: Probablya ship.

Gipsies Dance: Probably from The Gipsies Metamorphosed, Ben Jonson, August-Sept 1621, composed for Buckingham and his family: music may have been by Robert Johnson, and if sowould be after 1621. Plot revolves around fortune-telling.

Goddess of Love: Ballad tune referred to in the 1560s, also known as Turkeylony, dating from c1570.[5]

Go from my Window: Ballad popular from at least 1567. Consort setting printed by Morley in 1599. See also ORLANDO[6]

Gordon, Lady Ann: Probably the daughter of the Earl of Arran who married George Gordon, 5th Earl of Huntly, c1553. George became Lord Gordon on the death of his elder brother in that year. He was imprisoned some time in the 1560s, but was restored to the Earldom in 1565.

Gray's Inn Maske: Possibly from the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn Maske, 20 Feb 1613. See TOM OF BEDLAM, and INNERTEMPLE AND GRAY'S INN MASKE

Gray, Lord: Andrew, 7th Lord, who succeeded to his title in 1612, and died in 1663.

Gray, Molly: Possibly related to Lord Gray?

Green, Mrs Anne: Music dedicated to her published by John Danyel in 1606.

Greensleeves: Ballad tune first mentioned in 1580.

Greville, Fulke: (d 1628) He was knighted in 1603, and known as a poet, but the Greville mentioned in the lute sources may have been his father, who had the same name and title, as the music dedicated to him was written by Francis Cutting who died in 1596.

Guildford, Sir Henry: Possibly the controller of the royal household (1489-1532), who was knighted in 1512. In 1521 hewas granted the manor of Hadlow in Kent which had been takenfrom the then duke of Buckingham.

Harcourt, Lady: Probably the wife of Sir Simon Harcourt (1603-1642) or Sir Walter (1550-?).

Harte opreste, the: perhaps related to Sir Thomas Wyatt's poem 'Hartte aprest with dessperott thoughte'.[7]

Hastings, Lord: Either of the two grandsons of Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham:Edward (c1516-1573) or Francis (1514-1561)who later became Earl of Huntingdon.

Have at thy coat old woman: Ballad tune c1625.

Hay, Lord: probably James Hay, first Baron Hay (d 1636), became Lord Hay 1606 and married in 1607. There was a celebration maske.

Herbert, Edward: (3 March 1583-1648) full title, Edward Lord Herbert of Cherbury and Castle Island. Owner and one of the scribes ofthe lute book of Edward Herbert (c1630-40). He became a gentleman commoner of University College, Oxford in 1596, married Mary, daughter of Sir William Herbert in 1598. In 1603 he was made Knight of the Bath on the accession of James I(VI), and in 1624 received the Irishpeerage of Castle Island. He was finally elevated to the English peerage as Lord Herbert of Cherbury in 1629.

Hereford, Lord: The title was created in 1550 and died with the second Viscount in 1576. See DEVEREUX, WALTER

Hoby, Sir Giles: (d 1626) Either the half-brother or son ofthe half-brother of Sir Thomas Hoby, first husband of Lady Russell. The dates of their knighthoods and Thomas's marriage are unknown.

Hunsdon, Lady: Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir John Spenser of Northamptonshire, and wife of George Carey, who became second Lord Hunsdon in 1596.

Hunter's Career: The earliest Broadside Ballad dates from about 1625.

If care do cause men cry: Poem by Surrey from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

If ever man might him avaunt: Poem by Wyatt from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

If right be racked, and over-run: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

I loathe that I did love: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557). Ballad tune registered 1578.

In Crete when Daedalus first began: Ballad tune c1580.

In winters just return: Poem by Surrey from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Inner Temple and Gray's Inn Maske: Beaumont, 20 Feb 1613.

James, Dr: Dean of Christ Church [Dd.3.18] 1584-96, Dean of Durham 1596-1606, elevated to Bishopric 1606.

Je file: Chanson, model first published in Le Roy and Ballard Mellange de Chansons (Paris, 1572).

Jewel: A privateering vessel of 130 tons, which took valuable prizes in the West Indies in 1594. Captained by Richard Best.

Joan to the May Pole: Ballad, earliest printed source dated 1712.

Johnson, Edward: Was examined for his MusB in Cambridge by Thomas Dallis in 1594.

Johnson, Robert: Articled to Sir George Carey in 1596.

Johnson's Medley: ballad tune registered 1584.

Kemp, William: (fl 1600) Comic actor anddancer. He started acting c1586 and spent his life in mad jigs and merry jests. In 1591the third and last part of Kemp's Jig was licensed for publication; in 1599 he morris danced from London to Norwich; in 1600 he published his first pamphlet.

Knight, Captain John: (d 1606).

La Vecchia: ballad tune registered 1584, mentioned in Anthony Munday: Banquet of Daintie Conceyts(1584). The composition first appeared as Pass'e mezzo della Paganina in Primo Libro di Balli by G. Mainerio (Venice 1578).

Labandalashot: Ballad tune c1576.

Lachrimae: Tune by John Dowland, printed version published in 1604, but many manuscript sources predate this appearance.

Laiton, Lady: (i) The wife of Sir Thomas Laiton of Shropshire, Captain of Guernsey, knighted in 1579, and mentioned in New Years Gifts to Elizabeth 1576-1600, who married in 1578; (ii) Winifred Harcourt (d.1616), daughter of Simon Harcourt of Staffordshire, wife of Sir William Leighton, poet and composer, knighted23 July 1603; (iii) The wife of Edward Layton, knighted in 1591; (iv) Elizabeth Knollys, daughter of Sir Francis Knollys (1514-96), who married Thomas Leighton in 1578, who was knighted in 1579, became Captain of Guernsey and died in 1609.[8]

Langton, Sir John: (1560-1616) Knighted in 1603.

Light of love: Ballad tune popular in England from c1570.

Like as the lark within the marlins foot: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).


Lisle, The Lord Viscount: See SIDNEY, ROBERT

Lodwick: Possibly Lodovico Bassano b c1550, d 1593.[9]

Lord of Oxford's March,My: Tune listed in Munday 1588, but registered in 1584. See OXFORD, LORD OF

Lord Willoughby's Welcome Home: Divisions on the tune of a ballad (c1590) celebrating a battle in theNetherlands fought by Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby. Also known as Soet/Sweet Robert or Roland. See WILLOUGHBY, LORD

Lord's Maske: Campion, 14 Feb 1613.

Loth to depart: Ballad tune known before 1592, possibly as early as 1571.

Mall Peatly: Popular dance tune, first recorded in 1633.

Malte, Branle de: The dance is traced back to a mimed ballet of several movements during a masquerade at the French court in 1551.

Marchant, Mr: May be identified as John Marchant, Gentlemanof the Chapel Royal in 1593. A Mr Marchant, who taught the Princess Elizabeth to play the virginals, died in 1611. Hismusic is found in Brogyntyn, Sampson and Thistlethwaite.

Marigold: A bark of 30 tons. Captain, John Thomas. Accompanied Francis Drake. John Thomas behaved with conspicuous bravery when the Marigold was menaced by fog and storm, and he went ashore to save Drake, who was in a small boat engrossed in a survey off thecoast of Patagonia.

Mark Anthony: Mark Anthony Galliardello, a viol or violin player to the court 1547-85.

Markham, Lady Anne: Anne Roos, wife of Griffin Markham who was knighted in 1594 after accompanying Essex at the seige of Rouen, she became Lady Markham in 1591. Griffin Markham was arrested in 1603.

Martiall, the things that do attain: Poem by Surrey from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Mary, Lady: May be Mary of Guise (1515-60), wife of James Vof Scotland.

Middle Temple and Lincoln's Inn Maske: George Chapman, 15 Feb 1613.

Mildmay, Lady: Grace Sherrington (d 1620), who married Anthony Mildmay in 1597, and would have been Lady Mildmay from 1597 when Anthony was knighted.

Mildmay, Mr: Probably Anthony Mildmay, who was knighted in 1597.

Monson, Sir Thomas: (1564-1641) A great lover of music, whoeducated young musicians, especially singers, in his household.

Mounsieur's Almain: Probably named after the Duke d'Alençon, who is named 'Mounseur' in the New Year's Gifts of 1582, the tune registered in 1584.

Mure, Sir William: There were three successive Sir William Mures of Rowallan. Spring may have been more successful.

My lute awake perform the last: Poem by Wyatt from Tottel'sMiscellany (1557).

My youthful years are past: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Noble Men's Maske tune:This, in all probability, is part of the music from Cyril Tourneur's lost tragi-comedy, The Nobleman, which was played at Court in 1613, and is known to have contained a maske.

Noel, Sir Edward: (1582-1643) Knighted in 1602, created Baronet in 1611 and Baron in 1617. He sold his manor of Dalby to the Duke of Buckingham.

North, Lady: Married the third baron who succeeded to the title in 1600.

North, Lord: Created first Baron North in 1591.

Nusquam's Maske: Performed in the Willoughby household in 1560.

O happy dames, that mayembrace: Poem by Surrey from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

O Heavenly God: Song performed at the deathbed of Walter Devereux, First Earl of Essex, in 1576. Also known as The Earl of Essex's Dump.

Oldfield, Mrs Mary: The daughter and heiress of John Somerford who married Philip Oldfield, the second son of Philip Oldfield of Bradwall, in 1600 when he was 17.

O loathsome place where I: Poem by Surrey from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Orlando (Furioso): Ariosto's poem (1532) was first translated into English by John Harrington in the 1590s. The music is ascribed to Dowland, and was possibly composed for use in Robert Greene's play The Historie of Orlando Furioso c1591 [appears dated 1597 in Mynshall].

Oxford, Lord/Earl of: Edward de Vere (1550-1604), who succeeded as 17th Earl of Oxford in 1562. See LORD OF OXFORD'S MARCH, MY

Packington: Sir John Packington (1549-1625), knighted in 1587.

Packington's Compounds/Pound: Ballad tune c1596.

Paradiso, Renaldo: One of the consort of six flautists at court from 4th June 1568 to his death on 16th January 1570.

Parsons, Robert: He was drowned in the River Trent at Newark on January 25 1570.

Pembroke, Countess of: (d 1621) Sister of Sir Philip Sidney. She lost her father, mother and brother (Philip) in 1586, and it is probably this year that is referred to in the title of 'The Countess of Pembroke's Funerals' [Pickeringe f.34 etc.].

Perdy I said it not: Poem by Wyatt from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Philip's Pavan: has the title 'The first one Philips made' and the date 1580 in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book.

Phyllida was a fair maid: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Pilkington, Francis: Awarded Bachelor of Music, Lincoln College, Oxford 11 July 1595.

Piper, Captain Digorie: (1555-1590) His ship, the Sweepstake, put to sea in 1585 in search of Spaniards: however Piper did not confine himself to the Spanish and was charged with piracy in 1586.

Porter, Edward: An Endymion Porter (1587-1649) was in the service of the Duke of Buckingham. He had five sons, thoughnone was named Edward.

Prince's Maske: ? Robert Johnson, possibly from the Middle Temple and Lincoln's Inn Maske, George Chapman, 15 Feb 1613.

Quadran Pavan, Richard Allison: Broken consort setting printed by Morley in 1599.

Queen Elizabeth I: Reigned 1558-1603. Dowland only dedicated music to her after her death.

Queen Mary: Probably Mary Tudor, Queen of England 1553-58, but may be Mary of Guise (wife of James V of Scotland), 1515-60.

Queens, Maske of: 2 Feb 1609.

Raleigh, Sir Walter: Knighted in 1584, but out of Royal favour by 1603.

Resound my voice ye woods: Poem by Wyatt from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).


Rich, Lettice: Daughter of Robert Rich, third Lord Rich andfirst Earl of Warwick and Penelope, Lady Rich: she married Sir George Cary (d1609) of Cockington, Devon and then Sir Arthur Lake, and haddied by June 1619. Lady Cary is also called Lucy Rich.


Rogero: descant on the Italian ground bass Ruggiero, popular in England in the 1580s.


Rosseter, Philip: (1568-1623), Royal lutenist from 1603.

Ruggiero: See Rogero.

Russell, Lady: (1528-1609) Elizabeth, Lady Russell, a daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke of Essex. She married Sir Thomas Hoby (translator of Castiglione's The Bookeof the Courtier (1561)). After his death she married John, Lord Russell, heir to the Duke of Bedford in 1574.

Sellenger's Round: Ballad tune popular from at least 1567.

Seymour, Edward: (d1552), created Duke ofSomerset on 16 February 1547.

Shoemaker: May allude to Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday (1600).

Sick Tune, the: Either the ballad 'Captain Car' which has arefrain 'Syck sicke & totowe sike', entered in the Stationers' Register in 1579, or an unrelated tune 'sicke sicke and very sicke' in Holborne's Cittharn Schoole (1597).

Sidney, Lady Frances: Either the daughter of Sir Philip Sidney (1583/4-1612) who married the Earl of Rutland, or more probably the wife of Sir Philip (d before 1635).

Sidney, Philip: (1554-1586) Son of Sir Henry Sidney and brother of Robert Sidney and the Countess of Pembroke. He was knighted in 1583.

Sidney, Robert: (1563-1626) Son of Sir Henry Sidney and brother of Philip Sidney and the Countess of Pembroke. He was knighted in 1586, and created Viscount Lisle in 1605. In 1618, the Earldom of Leicester was revived for him.

Singer: John Singer (fl 1594-1602) actor and dramatist.

Sins fortunes wrath envieth the wealth: Poem by Surrey fromTottel's Miscellany (1557).

Smith, John: Either John Smith of Essex, knighted at Royston in Nov-Dec 1605, or John Smith of Ostenhanger, Kent,knighted 11 May 1603.

Smith, Thomas: Wrote commendatory poem to Dowland 1610B.


Solus sine sola: Also known as Mrs Brigide Fleetwood's pavan: she married in 1589.

Somerset, Duke of: Henry Fitzroy, natural son of Henry VIII, who was created Duke of Richmond and Somerset in 1525 and died in 1536. See also SEYMOUR, EDWARD

Souch, Sir John: Son of Sir John Souch of Derbyshire. He was knighted in 1603. See also ZOUCH

Southcote, Mr: Probably John Southcote (1511-85), a judge and member of the Middle Temple. He sat on many trials including that of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk. He had one son, also named John.

Spanish Pavan: descant on a variant of the Italian Folia ground bass, popular in England in the 1580s.

Squire's Maske: Written by Thomas Campion, for the marriageof the Earl of Somerset, 26 Dec 1613.

Squirrel: One of Sir Humphrey Gilbert's ships on his voyageof 1583 to Newfoundland: Captained by William Andrewes. The ship was lost in storms on the homeward voyage with Sir Humphrey on board. The ship's mascot was a red squirrel, which featured on the armorial bearings of Sir Humphrey's family.

Stanley, Ferdinando: See STRANGE, LORD and DERBY, EARL OF

Strang, Lady: See STRANGE, LORD

Strang, Lord: Probably Lord Strange. SeeSTRANGE, LORD

Strange, Lord: Title of Ferdinando Stanley until he became Earl of Derby in 1593. He became Lord Strange in 1582.

Sturt, John: A lutenist to prince Henry in 1612, who played in Chapman's Middle Temple masque (15 Feb 1613), and was a London Wait from 1613. A 'John Sturt seruant to Mr Robert Johnson' was buried at St Mary's, Acton, Middx., 15th April 1625, and a John Sterte `musician of Churchyard Alley, Fetter lane was buried at St Andrew's Holborn Jan 14 1625. The latter is most likely to have been the lutenist.

Sussex, Countess of: Possibly the wife of Robert Radcliffe,1st Earl of Sussex (1483-1542), who married (i) Elizabeth c1505, daughter of the Duke of Buckingham; (ii) Lady Margaret Stanley; (iii) Mary, daughter of Sir John Arundel of Lanherne. Or the wife of Henry Radcliff, 2nd Earl of Sussex, made a Knight Baronet in1533, who became Earl in 1542. He married (i) Lady Elizabeth Howard before May 1524 and (ii) Anne, daughter of Sir Philip Calthorpe.


Tarleton, Richard: (d 1588) Famous comic actor. A gamecock was named after him in 1607.

The dolefull bell that still doth ring: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Thestilis a sely man, when love did him forsake: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Though I regarded not: Poem by Surrey from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Tom of Bedlam: or Mad Tom of Bedlam, a corruption of Tom ofBethlehem, Bethlehem being originally an insane asylum, and a haunt of villains. Also known as Gray's Inn Maske. Possibly from the Maske of the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn, Beaumont, 20 Feb 1613. Also a character in Shakespeare's King Lear (1605), and sometimes also known as the Abram man.

Trial: Ship Captained by Thomas Cowper. It made a successful privateering voyage in 1599-1600 with a carefullyplanned and coolly executed piece of kidnapping at Mochima on the pearl coast.

Vain is the fleeting wealth: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Vautor, Thomas: Awarded Bachelor of Music, Oxford 1616.

Vaux, Mrs: Probably Elizabeth Roper, wife of George, eldestson of William Lord Vaux of Harrowden.

Weston: A 'Master Weston', page to Henry VIII and lutenist,was in the charge of Philip van Wilder in the 1530s (John Stevens: Music and Poetry in the Early Tudor Court). Account books at Belvoir Castle, Historical MSS Commission, 4, p.381, show that a Weston was engaged there as lutenist in 1558. Whether this Weston was identical withHenry VIII's page, or whether either was the composer of Weston's pavan is impossible to say.

When Cupid scaled firstthe fort: Poem by Vaux from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

When dreadful swelling seas: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

When raging love with extreme pain: Also imitated with the words 'When raging louts, with feeble brains'. Poem by Surrey from Tottel's Miscellany (1557). Ballad tune registered in 1584 as 'The complaint of a woman lover'.

When youth had led me half the race: Poem by Surrey from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

White, Mrs: May be Agnes Cecil (sister of William Cecil, Lord Burleigh 1520-98) who married Thomas White of Tuxford, Notts; or their daughter Anne.

Who loves to live in peace: Poem from Tottel's Miscellany (1557).

Willoughby, Francis: Owner and one of the scribes of the Willoughby lute book. He was born c1547, and was active until about 1580.[10]

Willoughby, Lord: Peregrine Bertie (1555-1601), eleventh Baron Willoughby de Eresby. He became a distinguished soldier, and in 1587 was appointed Commander of the English forces in the Netherlands. He returned triumphantly from there in 1589. See LORD WILLOUGHBY'S WELCOMEHOME

Wilson's Wild: ballad tune registered 1588.

Winter, Mrs: May be Jean or Jane Ingleby who married GeorgeWinter. (Date unknown).

Witches Dance: From Ben Jonson's The Maske of Queens, 2 Feb 1609.

Zouche, Lord: probably Edward la Zouche (1556-1625), who succeeded his father as Lord Zouche in 1569.

Zouche, Sir John: The younger son of John, 8th Baron Zouche of Harringworth. His son was born in 1590.

[1] Sources for information about ship's names cited inI. Gaskell: 'The possible linking of ship's names with Elizabethan music titles' North West Early Music Forum Newsletter xi/6 (June, 1988) from: B. Bevan: The Great Seamen of Elizabeth I(Robert Hale, 1971); M. Lewis: The Spanish Armada (Batsford, 1960); K. R. Andrews: Elizabethan Privateering (Cambridge, 1964).

[2] See J. Ward: 'Excuse Me: A Dance to a Tune of John Dowland's Making', in Libraries, History, Diplomacy and the Performing Arts: Essays in Honor of Carleton Sprague Smith ed. Malena Kuss and others [in preparation].

[3] See J. Knowlton: 'A Definition of the Duret' ML xcviii (1967), 120-3.

[4] See Spencer 1976 [?].

[5] See J. Ward: 'Music for "A Handefull of Pleasant Delites"', JAMS x (1957), 164; and Simpson 1966, 260-2.

[6] See Spencer 1976 [?].

[7] See LSJ xii (1970), 15, note 3.

[8] Spencer favours this last Lady Laiton.

[9] SeeWoodfill 1969, 300 and Grove 1980.

[10] Further information about the family may be found in R Smith: `The Willoughby's of Wollaton, 1500-1643' PhD diss., Nottingham U. (1964).
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